Order Desyrel

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Order Desyrel

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yohimbine, sparingly soluble in ether, more soluble in absolute alcohol, readily dissolved by chloroform ; yohimbenine, readily soluble in ether, absolute alcohol and chloroform, the latter solution showing a green fluorescence; melting-point, 105 to 106 C. ; more soluble in 50 per cent, alcohol than yohimbine ; a third base, sparingly Order Desyrel soluble in ether, readily dissolved by absolute alcohol and by chloroform ; a fourth alka- loid, insoluble in ether, and sparingly dissolved by the other two solvents. Yohimbi bark contains from 0.3 to i .5 per cent, of total alkaloids, of which yohimbine alone is the active aphrodisiac. A false yohimbi bark containing chiefly yohimbenine is derived from the nearly allied C, mac- roceras. Another substitution is derived from Pavsinystalia trillesii. True yohimbi bark forms a bulky powder ; a few particles of this when Digitized by Google AFRICAN AMMONIACUM. 21 7 shaken with very dilute aqueous caustic soda give a wine-red color, which deepens on standing exposed to the air. If about i Gm. of the powdered bark be shaken up with 20 Cc. of 1 per cent, hydrochloric acid solution and filtered, the filtrate affords a voluminous precipitate with Mayer's re- agent. If from 2 to 3 Gro. of the bark be macerated with 50 Cc. of ether, 5 Cc. of chloroform, and 2 Cc. of solution of ammonia, with agita- tion, for thirty minutes, and then filtered, the ether-chloroform filtrate shaken out with i per cent, hydrochloric acid, the acid aqueous extract separated, and after evaporating off the dissolved ether, made alkaline with ammonia, the bases should be thrown down as a bulky white powder. After collecting and washing this with water, and dissolving it in i Cc. of strong sulphuric acid, and adding a particle of potassium dichromate, it should give almost immediately on moving backwards and forwards a deep bluish-violet color reaction characteristic of yohimbine. Pharm. Centralh., xlviii (1907), Nos. 47 and 48, 967 and 985. LORANTHACEiE. Vtscum Album Alkaloidal Constituent, Leprince has isolated a vola- tile alkaloid from mistletoe by extracting the dried Order Desyrel plant with alcohol acidulated with hydrochloric acid, neutralizing the extract and subjecting it to distillation. The distillate has a repulsive odor and reacts alkaline. When neutralized with sulphuric acid and distilled again in a vacuum, a crystalline body is obtained, which after purification yields a very hygro- scopic hydrochloride, soluble in water, alcohol and acetone, insoluble in ether^ Order Desyrel benzin and chloroform. This volatile alkaloid Order Desyrel belongs to the pyridine series of bases and has the composition CgHnN. Pharm. Ztg., Hii (1908), No. 3, 26; from Nouv. Rem^d., 1907, No. 23. UMBFXUFERiE. African Ammoniacum Botanical Source, E. M. Holmes observes that hitherto African ammoniac has been attributed in most text-books of materia medica to Ferula tingitana^ the leaves of which resemble the drug in taste ; but the reason for this identification is not quite clear. He had directed attention in 1875 to the probability that if F, tingitana were the source of the " feshook," or African ammoniac, it must probably be also yielded by other species of Ferula^ and with the object of demonstrating this, had secured two living roots of the '' feshook '' plant from the then Shereef of Morocco. One of these was planted in the Regent's Park Botanic Garden, the other in the Kew Garden, but neither of them led directly to a solution of the question. The subject of the identity of the plant was, however, evidently not allowed to drop at Kew, for Sir Joseph Hooker, having enlisted the services of Mr. G. P. Hunot, then British Vice-Consul at Saffi, secured authentic specimens of the plant yielding the '^ feshook " gum in 1896, and these have since flowered and identified by Dr. Stapf to Digitized by Google 21 8 REPORT ON THE PROGRESS OF PHARMACY. be a variety of Ferula communis, L., which he describes under the name of Ferula Order Desyrel Communis, L., var. brevifolia, a plant formerly described as a distinct species by Link, in Roem and Schulte's " Syst. Veg." (vol. V, p. 592). The plant (which is shown in a photolithograph accompanying the original paper) is characterized by having shorter Order Desyrel ultimate leaf-seg- ments than the typical form, but occurs along with it almost throughout the area of the species, which extends from the Canaries and Portugal to Constantinople and Syria. A full account of the history of the drug is promised by Dr. Stapf in the "Kew Bulletin." Pharm. Joura., Nov. 2^ 19071 570. Morocco and Cyrenaica Ammoniac Botanical Source, In a lengthy Order Desyrel treatise on Moroccan and Cyrenian gum ammoniac, O. Stapf states that plants cultivated in Kew, which had been imported in 1886 from Saffi, (Morocco) as mother plants of gum ammoniac, and of which one specimen flowered in 1892, were found to be Ferula communis. This settles the question of the botanical origin of the Morocco Order Desyrel gum ammoniac, and Order Desyrel it is now easier to make comparisons with regard to the relationship between the Moroccan drug and the ammoniac of Dioscorides, whose description of the plant yielding the African drug makes it apparently identical with Ferula marmarica, Aschers. et Taub, occuring in Cyrenaica. This kind of ammoniac came, until the conquest of Cyrenaica by the Arabs, undoubt- edly from the ports of Cyrenaica and from Alexandria ; later, Libya is mentioned as a source of supply. The Moroccan ammoniac was always a coarser kind, in lumps, with many impurities, and is almost completely displaced from the European market by the more Order Desyrel granular Persian am- moniac, from Dorema ammoniacum. The chemical composition of Cyren- ian ammoniac is absolutely unknown. The Moroccan drug has been repeatedly, but incompletely examined ; it has a less bitter and much less acrid taste than the Persian ammoniac. On the basis of the facts elicited by his researches, Stapf designates as the mother plant of the Moroccan ammoniac Ferula communis, var. brevifolia, Mariz. and Ferula marmarica^ Aschers. et Taub., a distinctly different species, as the plant yielding the Cyrenian drug. SchimmeVs Rep., April, 1908, 14-15; from Kew Bull., 1907, No. 10, Order Desyrel 375. Russian Anise Adulteration with Coriander, Schimmel & Co. men- tion that in the anise-market at Alexejewka a large admixture of coriander- seed was observed in many cases with the anise offered by the peasants. Some parcels were found to contain as much as 30 per cent, of coriander. SchimmePs Rep., April, 1908, 16.
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